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TERMINOLOGY DATABASE
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IATE Terminology

Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh ábhair fhrithmhiocróbacha REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
ga AMR REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en acquired resistance | acquired antimicrobial resistance | antimicrobial resistance | resistance | AMR
DEFINITION resistance of a microorganism<sup>1</sup> to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive resulting in failure of the treatment and prolonged infection REFERENCE Based on: World Health Organization > Media Centre > Fact Sheets > Fact sheet N°194 - February 2011: Antimicrobial resistance http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/ [16.10.2018]
COMMENT <sup>1</sup> microorganism [ IATE:1203151 ] <HR>See also: <LI><I>antibiotic resistance</I> (narrower) [ IATE:1073649 ] </LI><LI><I>anti-microbial drug resistance </I> (related) [ IATE:2212752 ] </LI><LI><I>antiviral drug resistance </I> (related) [ IATE:3507575 ]</LI> <HR>Do not confuse with <i>antimicrobial resistance</i> [ IATE:3573244 ], where the resistance is innate and not acquired at a later time.
fr résistance acquise aux antimicrobiens | résistance aux agents antimicrobiens | résistance aux antimicrobiens
DEFINITION aptitude d'une ou plusieurs souches d'un microbe à survivre à l'administration d'un mé­dicament, entraînant ainsi la prolongation de l'état pathologique ou un échec thérapeutique total REFERENCE D'après: site de l'OMS, aide-mémoire n°194, révisé en janvier 2002, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/fr/index.html [14.4.2009] et Meertens R., Dictionnaire anglais-français/français-anglais de la santé et du médical, éd. Chiron, Paris, 2006.
COMMENT C'est le microbe (bactérie, virus, champignon ou protozoaire) qui est résistant, pas le médicament ni le patient. Des espèces de bactéries normalement résistantes à la pénicilline, par exemple, peuvent développer une résistance à ces médicaments soit par mutation (transmission verticale) soit par acquisition des gènes de résistance d’une autre bactérie (transmission horizontale). Ce double mode d’acquisition de la résistance explique pourquoi cette caractéristique peut se transmettre rapidement et remplacer une colonie de bactéries auparavant sensible aux médicaments. (cf. http://www.who.int/medicinedocs/es/d/Js2249f/3.1.html#Js2249f.3.1 )
de erworbene Resistenz gegen antimikrobielle Mittel | AMR | Resistenz gegen antimikrobielle Wirkstoffe | antimikrobielle Resistenz | Resistenz
DEFINITION genetisch bedingte Resistenz von Mikroorganismen gegen antimikrobielle Wirkstoffe IATE:834434 REFERENCE Council-DE
COMMENT XREF: Antibiotikum IATE:1098823 ; Antibiotika-Resistenz IATE:1073649 ; UPD: cba, 2.7.12
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht oiriúnaitheach in aghaidh ábhair fhrithmhiocróbacha REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en adaptive resistance | adaptive antimicrobial resistance
DEFINITION temporary rise in the resistibility of the microbe in response to the drug, due to altered gene/protein expression, as a result of exposure to stress nutrient medium, growth or sub-inhibitory levels of the antibiotic, which reverts when the inducing condition is removed REFERENCE COM-Terminology Coordination, based on:<BR>Leo J.P. Tharappel, Ginpreet Kaur, Harpal S. Buttar. India – A New Contributor To The Pharmacovigilance Movement. <i> IJPSR</i> (2014), Vol. 5, Issue 8, http://ijpsr.com/?action=download_pdf&postid=1155 [15.3.2018]
COMMENT See also:<BR>• <i>antimicrobial resistance</i> (broader) [ IATE:3573244 ] <BR>• <i>acquired antimicrobial resistance</i> (related) [ IATE:912591 ] <BR>• <i>intrinsic antimicrobial resistance</i> (related) [ IATE:3571214 ]
Life sciences
ga R-phlasmaid REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en resistance factor | R-factor | resistance plasmid | R-plasmid | antibiotic resistance plasmid | drug-resistance factor | R-factor plasmid
DEFINITION plasmid [ IATE:1684610 ] that carries and transmits genes responsible for resistance to antibiotics from one bacterium to another REFERENCE The Free Dictionary http://www.thefreedictionary.com/R+factor [23.9.2010]
fr facteur R | facteur de transfert de résistance | plasmide de résistance | facteur de résistance
DEFINITION Plasmide capable de transférer d'une bactérie à l'autre la résistance bactérienne aux antibiotiques. REFERENCE Biofutur 5/86,p.24
de R-Plasmid | Resistenzplasmid | Chemikalienresistenzplasmid | Antibiotikum-Resistenz-Plasmid | R-Faktor | Resistenzfaktor
DEFINITION Plasmide (Resistenzplasmide), auf denen Gene der Antibiotika-Resistenz oder allgemein der Resistenz gegenüber antimikrobiellen Agenzien lokalisiert sind, die dem Plasmid-Träger die entsprechende Resistenz verleihen REFERENCE Lexikon der Biologie. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag: Heidelberg, 1999, s. v. „Resistenzfaktoren“, http://www.spektrum.de/lexikon/biologie/resistenzfaktoren/56364 (25.10.2017)
Health · Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh antaibheathach REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en antibiotic resistance | resistance to antibiotics
DEFINITION resistance occurring when bacteria develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them, the consequence of which is that antibiotics cannot fight them, and the bacteria multiply REFERENCE EP-Terminology Coordination, based on: Center for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC > Antibiotic Use > Appropriate Antibiotic Use: Community > About, ’Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers’, https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/about.html [6.10.2018]
COMMENT Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of antibiotics used to treat <b>bacterial infections</b> (such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections) making them ineffective. <b>Antibiotics fight bacteria, not viruses.</b><p>Antimicrobial resistance is a broader term, encompassing resistance to drugs that treat <b>infections caused by other microbes</b> as well, such as parasites (e.g. malaria or helminths), viruses (e.g. HIV) and fungi (e.g. Candida).<p>References: <li>World Health Organization, ’What is the difference between antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance?’, http://www.emro.who.int/health-topics/drug-resistance/what-is-the-difference-between-antibiotic-and-antimicrobial-resistance.html [6.11.2018] <li>U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Home For Consumers > Consumer Updates, ‘Combating Antibiotic Resistance’, 15 November 2011, https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm092810.htm [6.11.2018] <br>
de antibiotische Resistenz | Antibiotikaresistenz
DEFINITION Eigenschaft von Bakterien, die gegen ein bestimmtes Antibiotikum (oder auch mehrere) unempfindlich sind. Verantwortlich für die Antibiotikaresistenz sind Gene, die Enzyme zum Abbau oder zur Ausscheidung der betreffenden Substanz codieren. ; durch vorzeitigen Abbruch von Behandlungen mit Antiobiotika (= Medikamenten mit antimikrobieller Wirkung) werden gerade die resistenten Keime (bakteriellen Krankheitserreger) selektiert und verbreiten sich REFERENCE Lex.Biochemie;Brockhaus Enzyklopädie,F.A.Brockhaus Wiesbaden ;
COMMENT XREF: Antibiotikum IATE:1098823 ; antimikrobieller Wirkstoff IATE:834434 ; antimikrobielle Resistenz IATE:912591 ; XREF: Resistenz gegen antimikrobielle Wirkstoffe (A317180);MISC: "Antibiotika": alle oral oder systematisch verabreichten Gruppen von natürlichen, halbsynthetischen und synthetischen Antimikroben-Stoffen verstanden, die Mikroorganismen töten oder ihre Vermehrung hemmen;DIV: RSZ 23/12/2003
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh ábhair fhrithmhiocróbacha REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en AMR | antimicrobial resistance
DEFINITION resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine [ IATE:834434 ] REFERENCE COM-Terminology Coordination, based on:<BR>Leo J.P. Tharappel, Ginpreet Kaur, Harpal S. Buttar. India – A New Contributor To The Pharmacovigilance Movement. <i> IJPSR</i> (2014), Vol. 5, Issue 8, http://ijpsr.com/?action=download_pdf&postid=1155 [14.5.2018]
COMMENT See also:<BR>• <i>acquired antimicrobial resistance</i> [ IATE:912591 ] <BR>• <i>adaptive antimicrobial resistance</i> [ IATE:3573248 ]<BR>• <i>intrinsic antimicrobial resistance</i> [ IATE:3571214 ]
de antimikrobielle Resistenz
DEFINITION Phänomen, dass sich Mikroorganismen vor dem Angriff eigentlich gegen sie gerichteter Wirkstoffe erfolgreich schützen und die entsprechende biologische oder chemische Substanz damit unwirksam machen können REFERENCE Antimicrobial Copper: Startseite > Warum Antimikrobielle Kupferwerkstoffe? > Antimikrobielle Resistenz, http://www.antimicrobialcopper.org/de/Resistenzen (29.8.2017)
Medical science · Life sciences
ga frithsheasmhacht ghéiniteach REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en genetic resistance
DEFINITION Definition: genetically determined resistance to specific<I> harmful agents</I> IATE:814025 REFERENCE COM-Term. Coord., based on:<BR><I>Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary</I>,Elsevier, 2007. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Genetic+resistance [5.11.2012] & Moncrieff, A. <I>The genetic basis of host pathogen specifity in plant disease resistance</I>. http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/learning/resources/PlantPathology/infection/plant_defenses/resistanceGenetics.html [5.11.2012]
COMMENT For humans and animals, harmful agents are infectious agents, while for plants they are foreign pests and other micro-organisms. Inversely, genetic resistance of pests refers to their acquired resistance to pesticides. <HR>See also: <I> harmful agent</I> (related) IATE:814025
Means of agricultural production · Plant product · Technology and technical regulations
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh luibhicídí REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en herbicide tolerance | herbicide resistance
DEFINITION ability of a plant to remain unaffected by the application of a herbicide REFERENCE Zaid, A., Hughes, H. G., Porceddu, E., Nicholas, F. <I>Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture - A Revised and Augmented Edition of the Glossary of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering</I>. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 2001. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/004/Y2775E/Y2775E00.HTM [29.3.2011]
COMMENT Herbicide resistance has been one of the early targets of plant genetic engineering. If a herbicide is sprayed onto a field planted with such resistant crops, then all the plants except the crop would be killed, thus providing an effective method of weed control without having to develop herbicides specific to each weed type. There is substantial concern in some quarters about the widespread use of this technology, which is essentially giving the plant kingdom the ability to evade man's most effective herbicides. The concern are that, firstly, such engineering will lead to increased use of the herbicides, at a time when it is generally accepted that the use of chemicals should be kept as low as possible, and that, secondly, there is the possibility that resistant crop plants will escape to become weeds, or that their resistant genes could be transferred to other species, including weeds.
Pharmaceutical industry · Life sciences
ga frithsheasmhacht intreach REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en intrinsic resistance | insensitivity | intrinsic antimicrobial resistance
DEFINITION innate ability of a bacterial species to resist activity of a particular drug or antimicrobial agent thanks to its inherent structural or functional characteristics REFERENCE COM-EN, based on: Michigan State University. Antimicrobial Resistance Learning Site. Microbiology. <i>Intrinsic Resistance</i>, http://amrls.cvm.msu.edu/microbiology/molecular-basis-for-antimicrobial-resistance/intrinsic-resistance [15.3.2018]
COMMENT See also:<BR>• <i>antimicrobial resistance</i> (broader) [ IATE:3573244 ] <BR>• <i>acquired antimicrobial resistance</i> (related) [ IATE:912591 ]<BR>• <i>adaptative antimicrobial resistance</i> (related) [ IATE:]
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht phríomhúil in aghaidh drugaí REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en primary resistance | trasmitted drug resistance | primary drug resistance
DEFINITION resistance to drug treatment developed by a treatment-naive patient REFERENCE COM-EN, based on:<BR>Barbour JD, Hecht FM, Wrin T, Liegler TJ, Ramstead CA, Busch MP, Segal MR, Petropoulos CJ, Grant RM. Persistence of primary drug resistance among recently HIV-1 infected adults. AIDS. 2004 Aug 20;18(12):1683-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15280779 [10.11.2011]
de primäre Resistenz
DEFINITION bei Bakterien durch Spontanmutation im extrachromosomalen Erbgut entstehendes Gen, das das Resistenz-"Besteck" gegen ein bestimmtes Antibiotikum kodiert REFERENCE Reallex Med
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