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TERMINOLOGY DATABASE
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IATE Terminology

Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh ábhar frithmhiocróbach bia-iompartha REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
ga FÁF bia-iompartha REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en foodborne antimicrobial resistance | foodborne AMR
DEFINITION <i>antimicrobial resistance</i> [ IATE:912591 ] of pathogens causing <i>foodborne diseases</i> [ IATE:896866 ] REFERENCE COM-Term. Coord., based on:<BR>World Health Organisation ( http://www.who.int ) <BR> "An integrated approach for containment of foodborne antimicrobial resistance - Tackling foodborne antimicrobial resistance", http://www.who.int/foodsafety/about/flyer_amr.pdf [3.10.2013]
COMMENT See also: <UL><LI><i>antimicrobial resistance</i> (narrower) [ IATE:912591 ] <LI><i>foodborne diseases</i> (related)[ IATE:896866 ]
fr RAM d'origine alimentaire | résistance aux antimocrobiens d'origine alimentaire
DEFINITION capacité pour un micro-organisme, transmise par les aliments, de se multiplier ou de résister en présence de niveaux croissants d'un agent antimicrobien REFERENCE COM-FR, d'après:<BR>Codex alimentarius, Lignes directrices pour l'analyse des risques liés à la résistance aux antimicrobiens d'origine alimentaire, CAC/GL 77-2011, http://www.codexalimentarius.org/input/download/standards/11776/CXG_077f.pdf [16.3.2015]
Health
ga EARS-Net REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
ga an Líonra Eorpach Faireachais um Fhrithsheasmhacht in aghaidh Ábhar Frithmhiocróbach REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
DEFINITION líonra Eorpach na gcóras náisiúnta faireachais, trína gcuirtear sonraí tagartha Eorpacha ar fáil maidir le frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh ábhar frithmhicróbach ar mhaithe leis an tsláinte phoiblí REFERENCE Comhairle-GA bunaithe ar an mBéarla
en European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System | European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network | EARS-Net
DEFINITION European wide network of national surveillance systems, providing European reference data on antimicrobial resistance for public health purposes REFERENCE ECDC Portal > English > Activities > Surveillance > European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net), http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/activities/surveillance/EARS-Net/Pages/index.aspx (31.3.2011)
COMMENT Renamed on 1 January 2010.
fr Réseau européen de surveillance de la résistance aux antimicrobiens | EARS-Net | Système européen de surveillance de la résistance aux antimicrobiens
DEFINITION réseau européen de systèmes nationaux de surveillance installés dans des laboratoires et des hôpitaux, et visant à fournir des données concernant la résistance aux microbes, l’objectif étant l’amélioration de la santé publique REFERENCE Site web du Sénat BE - Question écrite n° 4-1339 de Louis Ide du 31/7/2008 à la vice-première ministre et ministre des Affaires sociales et de la Santé publique, http://www.senate.be/www/?MIval=/Vragen/SchriftelijkeVraag&LEG=4&NR=1339&LANG=fr (6/3/2009)
COMMENT Site Internet (en anglais): http://www.rivm.nl/earss/about/ (14.4.2009)
de EARS-Netz | Europäisches Netz zur Überwachung von Resistenzen gegen antimikrobielle Wirkstoffe | Europäisches System zur Überwachung von Resistenzen gegen antimikrobielle Wirkstoffe
DEFINITION von der ECDC IATE:929455 betriebenes europäisches Netz nationaler Überwachungssysteme für Antibiotikaresistenzen und zur Einführung einer standardisierten Datenerhebung, die vergleichbare Informationen liefert REFERENCE Council-DE vgl. WHO http://www.euro.who.int/de/health-topics/disease-prevention/pages/news/news/2014/04/new-report-antibiotic-resistance-a-global-health-threat (18.1.2018)
Health policy
ga córas faireachais ar fhrithsheasmhacht in aghaidh ábhar frithmhiocróbach REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en antimicrobial resistance surveillance system | surveillance system on antimicrobial resistance | surveillance system of antimicrobial resistance
DEFINITION system that monitors and provides information on the prevalence and spread of major disease-causing bacteria with resistance to one or more antibiotics REFERENCE COM-EN based on: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) > The European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) > About, http://www.rivm.nl/earss/about/ [15.3.2010]
Pharmaceutical industry
ga deitéarmanant frithsheasmhachta in aghaidh ábhar frithmhiocróbach REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en antimicrobial resistance determinant | AMR determinant
DEFINITION genetic element(s) encoding for the ability of microorganisms to withstand the effects of an <I>antimicrobial agent</I> [ IATE:834434 ] REFERENCE Codex Alimentarius. <i>Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance</i>, CAC/GL 77-2011, page 5, http://www.codexalimentarius.org/download/standards/11776/CXG_077e.pdf [17.10.2013]
COMMENT They are located either chromosomally or extra-chromosomally and may be associated with mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, integrons or transposons, thereby enabling horizontal transmission from resistant to susceptible strains. <HR>See also: <I>antimicrobial agent</I> (related) [ IATE:834434 ]
fr déterminant de résistance aux antimicrobiens
DEFINITION élément génétique codant conférant à des microorganismes la capacité de résister aux effets d’un agent antimicrobien REFERENCE Codex Alimentarius. Lignes directrices pour l’analyse des risques liés à la résistance aux antimicrobiens d’origine alimentaire. CAC/GL 77-2011, http://www.codexalimentarius.org/download/standards/11776/CXG_077f.pdf [17.10.2013]
COMMENT Les déterminants se situent dans un chromosome ou en dehors d'un chromosome, et peuvent être associée à des éléments génétiques mobiles, tels que des plasmides, des intégrons ou des transposons, permettant ainsi la transmission horizontale des souches résistantes aux souches vulnérables.<br>Source: ibid. [17.10.2013]
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh ábhair fhrithmhiocróbacha REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
ga AMR REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en acquired resistance | acquired antimicrobial resistance | antimicrobial resistance | resistance | AMR
DEFINITION resistance of a microorganism<sup>1</sup> to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive resulting in failure of the treatment and prolonged infection REFERENCE Based on: World Health Organization > Media Centre > Fact Sheets > Fact sheet N°194 - February 2011: Antimicrobial resistance http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/en/ [16.10.2018]
COMMENT <sup>1</sup> microorganism [ IATE:1203151 ] <HR>See also: <LI><I>antibiotic resistance</I> (narrower) [ IATE:1073649 ] </LI><LI><I>anti-microbial drug resistance </I> (related) [ IATE:2212752 ] </LI><LI><I>antiviral drug resistance </I> (related) [ IATE:3507575 ]</LI> <HR>Do not confuse with <i>antimicrobial resistance</i> [ IATE:3573244 ], where the resistance is innate and not acquired at a later time.
fr résistance acquise aux antimicrobiens | résistance aux agents antimicrobiens | résistance aux antimicrobiens
DEFINITION aptitude d'une ou plusieurs souches d'un microbe à survivre à l'administration d'un mé­dicament, entraînant ainsi la prolongation de l'état pathologique ou un échec thérapeutique total REFERENCE D'après: site de l'OMS, aide-mémoire n°194, révisé en janvier 2002, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs194/fr/index.html [14.4.2009] et Meertens R., Dictionnaire anglais-français/français-anglais de la santé et du médical, éd. Chiron, Paris, 2006.
COMMENT C'est le microbe (bactérie, virus, champignon ou protozoaire) qui est résistant, pas le médicament ni le patient. Des espèces de bactéries normalement résistantes à la pénicilline, par exemple, peuvent développer une résistance à ces médicaments soit par mutation (transmission verticale) soit par acquisition des gènes de résistance d’une autre bactérie (transmission horizontale). Ce double mode d’acquisition de la résistance explique pourquoi cette caractéristique peut se transmettre rapidement et remplacer une colonie de bactéries auparavant sensible aux médicaments. (cf. http://www.who.int/medicinedocs/es/d/Js2249f/3.1.html#Js2249f.3.1 )
de erworbene Resistenz gegen antimikrobielle Mittel | AMR | Resistenz gegen antimikrobielle Wirkstoffe | antimikrobielle Resistenz | Resistenz
DEFINITION genetisch bedingte Resistenz von Mikroorganismen gegen antimikrobielle Wirkstoffe IATE:834434 REFERENCE Council-DE
COMMENT XREF: Antibiotikum IATE:1098823 ; Antibiotika-Resistenz IATE:1073649 ; UPD: cba, 2.7.12
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh ábhair fhrithmhiocróbacha REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en AMR | antimicrobial resistance
DEFINITION resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine [ IATE:834434 ] REFERENCE COM-Terminology Coordination, based on:<BR>Leo J.P. Tharappel, Ginpreet Kaur, Harpal S. Buttar. India – A New Contributor To The Pharmacovigilance Movement. <i> IJPSR</i> (2014), Vol. 5, Issue 8, http://ijpsr.com/?action=download_pdf&postid=1155 [14.5.2018]
COMMENT See also:<BR>• <i>acquired antimicrobial resistance</i> [ IATE:912591 ] <BR>• <i>adaptive antimicrobial resistance</i> [ IATE:3573248 ]<BR>• <i>intrinsic antimicrobial resistance</i> [ IATE:3571214 ]
de antimikrobielle Resistenz
DEFINITION Phänomen, dass sich Mikroorganismen vor dem Angriff eigentlich gegen sie gerichteter Wirkstoffe erfolgreich schützen und die entsprechende biologische oder chemische Substanz damit unwirksam machen können REFERENCE Antimicrobial Copper: Startseite > Warum Antimikrobielle Kupferwerkstoffe? > Antimikrobielle Resistenz, http://www.antimicrobialcopper.org/de/Resistenzen (29.8.2017)
Health · Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh antaibheathach REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en antibiotic resistance | resistance to antibiotics
DEFINITION resistance occurring when bacteria develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them, the consequence of which is that antibiotics cannot fight them, and the bacteria multiply REFERENCE EP-Terminology Coordination, based on: Center for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC > Antibiotic Use > Appropriate Antibiotic Use: Community > About, ’Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers’, https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/about.html [6.10.2018]
COMMENT Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of antibiotics used to treat <b>bacterial infections</b> (such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections) making them ineffective. <b>Antibiotics fight bacteria, not viruses.</b><p>Antimicrobial resistance is a broader term, encompassing resistance to drugs that treat <b>infections caused by other microbes</b> as well, such as parasites (e.g. malaria or helminths), viruses (e.g. HIV) and fungi (e.g. Candida).<p>References: <li>World Health Organization, ’What is the difference between antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance?’, http://www.emro.who.int/health-topics/drug-resistance/what-is-the-difference-between-antibiotic-and-antimicrobial-resistance.html [6.11.2018] <li>U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Home For Consumers > Consumer Updates, ‘Combating Antibiotic Resistance’, 15 November 2011, https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm092810.htm [6.11.2018] <br>
de antibiotische Resistenz | Antibiotikaresistenz
DEFINITION Eigenschaft von Bakterien, die gegen ein bestimmtes Antibiotikum (oder auch mehrere) unempfindlich sind. Verantwortlich für die Antibiotikaresistenz sind Gene, die Enzyme zum Abbau oder zur Ausscheidung der betreffenden Substanz codieren. ; durch vorzeitigen Abbruch von Behandlungen mit Antiobiotika (= Medikamenten mit antimikrobieller Wirkung) werden gerade die resistenten Keime (bakteriellen Krankheitserreger) selektiert und verbreiten sich REFERENCE Lex.Biochemie;Brockhaus Enzyklopädie,F.A.Brockhaus Wiesbaden ;
COMMENT XREF: Antibiotikum IATE:1098823 ; antimikrobieller Wirkstoff IATE:834434 ; antimikrobielle Resistenz IATE:912591 ; XREF: Resistenz gegen antimikrobielle Wirkstoffe (A317180);MISC: "Antibiotika": alle oral oder systematisch verabreichten Gruppen von natürlichen, halbsynthetischen und synthetischen Antimikroben-Stoffen verstanden, die Mikroorganismen töten oder ihre Vermehrung hemmen;DIV: RSZ 23/12/2003
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh druga frithvíreasach REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en antiviral resistance | viral resistance | antiviral drug resistance
DEFINITION the ability of some virus to grow and multiply even in the presence of certain drugs which normally kill them REFERENCE AHCPR Clinical Practice Guideline:Management of Cancer Pain-Gloss.,1999,Talaria & AHCPR
fr résistance virale | résistance aux antiviraux
DEFINITION capacité d'un virus à se modifier afin de se rendre insensible au médicament utilisé contre lui REFERENCE Infection par le VIH et sida,ARCAT SIDA,1995
COMMENT C'est le microbe (bactérie, virus, champignon ou protozoaire) qui est résistant, pas le médicament ni le patient. Des espèces de bactéries normalement résistantes à la pénicilline, par exemple, peuvent développer une résistance à ces médicaments soit par mutation (transmission verticale) soit par acquisition des gènes de résistance d’une autre bactérie (transmission horizontale). Ce double mode d’acquisition de la résistance explique pourquoi cette caractéristique peut se transmettre rapidement et remplacer une colonie de bactéries auparavant sensible aux médicaments. (cf. http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/es/d/Js2249f/3.1.html#Js2249f.3.1 )
Health · Research
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh drugaí REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en resistance | drug resistance
DEFINITION the degree to which a disease or disease-causing organism remains unaffected by antibiotics or other drugs REFERENCE "resistance" in ‘Concise Medical Dictionary’ (eighth edition). Ed. Elizabeth Martin. Oxford University Press (OUP), 2010. Oxford Reference Online. OUP. DGT. http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t60.e8730 [18.6.2012]
fr résistance aux médicaments | pharmacorésistance
DEFINITION Aptitude d'un micro-organisme à survivre et éventuellement à se reproduire lorsqu'il est exposé à un médicament qui normalement le détruit ou l'empêche de se multiplier. REFERENCE Grand dictionnaire terminologique (07/05/2004)
de Arzneimittelresistenz
COMMENT DIV: AKO 07/05/2004
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh drugaí frithmhiocróbacha REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
Means of agricultural production · Plant product · Technology and technical regulations
ga frithsheasmhacht in aghaidh luibhicídí REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en herbicide tolerance | herbicide resistance
DEFINITION ability of a plant to remain unaffected by the application of a herbicide REFERENCE Zaid, A., Hughes, H. G., Porceddu, E., Nicholas, F. <I>Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture - A Revised and Augmented Edition of the Glossary of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering</I>. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 2001. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/004/Y2775E/Y2775E00.HTM [29.3.2011]
COMMENT Herbicide resistance has been one of the early targets of plant genetic engineering. If a herbicide is sprayed onto a field planted with such resistant crops, then all the plants except the crop would be killed, thus providing an effective method of weed control without having to develop herbicides specific to each weed type. There is substantial concern in some quarters about the widespread use of this technology, which is essentially giving the plant kingdom the ability to evade man's most effective herbicides. The concern are that, firstly, such engineering will lead to increased use of the herbicides, at a time when it is generally accepted that the use of chemicals should be kept as low as possible, and that, secondly, there is the possibility that resistant crop plants will escape to become weeds, or that their resistant genes could be transferred to other species, including weeds.
Cultivation of agricultural land · Chemical compound
ga frithsheasmhacht lotnaidí in aghaidh tocsaine REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
ga frithsheasmhacht lotnaidí in aghaidh lotnaidicídí REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en pesticide resistance | pest resistance | pest resistance to pesticides
DEFINITION natural or genetic ability of a pest to tolerate the poisonous effects of a toxicant REFERENCE Ware G.W., The Pesticide Book, San Francisco, 1978, p.183.
COMMENT Not to be confused with <I>pest resistance</I> [ IATE:1177509 ] meaning the ability of plants to resist the harmful effects caused by pathogens.
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht oiriúnaitheach in aghaidh ábhair fhrithmhiocróbacha REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en adaptive resistance | adaptive antimicrobial resistance
DEFINITION temporary rise in the resistibility of the microbe in response to the drug, due to altered gene/protein expression, as a result of exposure to stress nutrient medium, growth or sub-inhibitory levels of the antibiotic, which reverts when the inducing condition is removed REFERENCE COM-Terminology Coordination, based on:<BR>Leo J.P. Tharappel, Ginpreet Kaur, Harpal S. Buttar. India – A New Contributor To The Pharmacovigilance Movement. <i> IJPSR</i> (2014), Vol. 5, Issue 8, http://ijpsr.com/?action=download_pdf&postid=1155 [15.3.2018]
COMMENT See also:<BR>• <i>antimicrobial resistance</i> (broader) [ IATE:3573244 ] <BR>• <i>acquired antimicrobial resistance</i> (related) [ IATE:912591 ] <BR>• <i>intrinsic antimicrobial resistance</i> (related) [ IATE:3571214 ]
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht phríomhúil in aghaidh drugaí REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en primary resistance | trasmitted drug resistance | primary drug resistance
DEFINITION resistance to drug treatment developed by a treatment-naive patient REFERENCE COM-EN, based on:<BR>Barbour JD, Hecht FM, Wrin T, Liegler TJ, Ramstead CA, Busch MP, Segal MR, Petropoulos CJ, Grant RM. Persistence of primary drug resistance among recently HIV-1 infected adults. AIDS. 2004 Aug 20;18(12):1683-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15280779 [10.11.2011]
de primäre Resistenz
DEFINITION bei Bakterien durch Spontanmutation im extrachromosomalen Erbgut entstehendes Gen, das das Resistenz-"Besteck" gegen ein bestimmtes Antibiotikum kodiert REFERENCE Reallex Med
Cultivation techniques · Plant product · Production
ga frithsheasmacht plandaí in aghaidh pataiginí REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
ga frithsheasmhacht plandaí in aghaidh pataiginí REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en pest resistance | plant resistance
DEFINITION the ability of plants to resist the harmful effects caused by pathogens REFERENCE Mc Graw-Hill, Encyclopedia of Food Agriculture and Nutrition, 1977, p.492-493
COMMENT Not to be confused with <I>pest resistance</I> [ IATE:1172284 ] meaning the natural or genetic ability of a pest to tolerate the poisonous effects of a toxicant.
Medical science
ga frithsheasmhacht thánaisteach in aghaidh drugaí REFERENCE Faomhadh an téarma seo mar chuid de Thionscadal Lex
en secondary resistance | secondary drug resistance | acquired drug resistance
DEFINITION resistance to drug treatment for infection developed by a patient in response to the treatment REFERENCE COM-EN, based on:<BR>Barbour JD, Hecht FM, Wrin T, Liegler TJ, Ramstead CA, Busch MP, Segal MR, Petropoulos CJ, Grant RM. Persistence of primary drug resistance among recently HIV-1 infected adults. AIDS. 2004 Aug 20;18(12):1683-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15280779 [10.11.2011]
COMMENT In principle, acquired (or secondary) drug resistance applies to patients who initially have drug-susceptible bacteria that become drug-resistant due to inadequate, inappropriate, or irregular treatment or, more importantly, because of non-adherence in drug taking <BR><i>Ref.:</i>Public Health Agency of Canada. Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Among the Foreign-born in Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/tbcan02/sr-tb2002-eng.php [10.11.2011]
Health policy
en EU action plan on AMR | European One Health Action Plan against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)
DEFINITION comprehensive EU action plan on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) [ IATE:912591 ] based on the One Health approach [ IATE:3539570 ] REFERENCE European Commission. <i>A European One Health Action Plan against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)</i>, https://ec.europa.eu/health/amr/sites/amr/files/amr_action_plan_2017_en.pdf [17.5.2018]
COMMENT Adopted in June 2017.<HR>Reference: European Commission > Live, work, travel in the EU > Public health > Antimicrobial Resistance > <i>Action at EU Level</i>, https://ec.europa.eu/health/amr/action_eu_en [17.5.2018]
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