SAINMHÍNIÚ vector-borne disease caused by obligate intracellular protozoa (protozoan parasites) belonging to the genus <I>Leishmania</I>, transmitted by the bite of a tiny – only 2–3 mm long – insect vector, the phlebotomine sandfly, which breeds in forest areas, caves, or the burrows of small rodents TAGAIRT COM-EN, based on:<BR>• World Health Organization > Programmes and projects > Leishmaniasis, http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/en/ [14.1.2011]<BR>• World Health Organization > Health topics > Leishmaniasis, http://www.who.int/topics/leishmaniasis/en/ [14.1.2011]<BR>• US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) > Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM). > DPDx website (Laboratory Identification of Parasites of Public Health Concern) > Parasites and Health > Leishmaniasis, http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/leishmaniasis.htm [14.1.2011]
NÓTA There are some 500 known phlebotomine species, but only about 30 have been found to transmit leishmaniasis. Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals. Only the female sandfly transmits the parasites. Female sandflies need blood for their eggs to develop, and become infected with the <I>Leishmania</I> parasites when they suck blood from an infected person or animal. Over a period of between 4 and 25 days, the parasites develop in the sandfly. When the infectious female sandfly then feeds on a fresh source of blood, it inoculates the person or animal with the parasite, and the transmission cycle is completed.<P> Leishmaniasis includes two major diseases, cutaneous leishmaniasis [ IATE:1511134] and visceral leishmaniasis [ IATE:1196184 ], caused by more than 20 different leishmanial species.